• Cover the pile with (straws, earth, porous materials, perforated plastic ...) to prevent rain penetration (percolation), heat dissipation and moisture loss (desiccation)
  • Maintenance
    • Humidity
    • Aeration: watering, adding straw, turning and measuring
    • Temperature
  • Frequent negative signs
    • Lack of O2
      • Bad odour (smell of ammonia - loss of N in gaseous form and methane - loss of C in the form of CH4)
      • Appearance of black butter
    • Lack of H2O
      • White spots (fungal and actinomycete resistance structures) 

Source: DRAP Norte, 2020

The use of compost from the biodegradable residues of wineries, improves texture and soil fertility and closes the waste cycle (CCDR Alentejo, 2018).